Complete Men’s Skin Care & Shaving Ingredient List Part 1

Acrylates/C10-30, Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer – A film forming agent that produces excellent water binding properties. Used as a moisturizing agent.Avobenzone (2%) – Used in sunscreen and sun block products. Doubles or triples their UVA protection. Avobenzone and Zinc Oxide are the only 2 sunscreens approved for broad spectrum protection.Agave Tequilana Leaf Extact (Blue Agave) – A moisturizing agent derived from the Blue Agave plant. Ancient cultures have known about it’s great moisturizing properties for centuries.Akyl Acrylate – A film forming agent that grabs moisture from the air and disperses it into the skin.Alcohol (Denatured) – Also known as SD (Specially Denatured) Alcohol. Used in many skin toners to help break the surface tension of oils and make them easier to be removed from the skin.Aleurities Moluccana (Kukui) Seed Oil – A moisturizing and skin soothing oil derived from the Candle Nut Tree. Mainly Exported from Hawaii but also found in other tropical regions.Algae Extract – Am extract derived from Algae. Algae has been used for it’s skin healing properties for years. Scientists have recently that found that Algae contains many antioxidants that are easily absorbed into the skin to be in algae.Alkyl Benzoate – is an emollient Ester that provides the skin with light conditioning and leaves the skin feeling silky soft. Alkyl Benzoate is great for men with sensitive skin.Allantoin – is a by product of Uric Acid that is known to be a great anti skin irritant. Allantoin is a great ingredient for men who’s skin is sensitive or easily irritated.Almond Oil (Sweet) – is an oil extracted from Almond Seed. It is considered a non-Volatile oil. It is used as a moisturizer and has great skin softening properties.Aloe Vera – Known for years to have powerful Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Bacterial properties. Aloe Vera also contains a large amount of antioxidants and also a water binding agent that helps pull ambient moisture from the air onto your skin. A must have ingredient to help treat sunburns.Alumina (Aluminum Oxide) – is used in skin care products as a thickening agent and also as an absorbent to help other ingredients be absorbed into the skin.Anthemis Nobilis Flower Extract (Chamomile) – a potent anti-Inflammatory for the skin. Also has strong anti microbial properties. Is considered an essential oil and is derived from the Chamomilla recutita Plant.Apricot Kernel Oil – is a plant oil pressed from the seeds of the apricot fruit. It is a non fragrant plant oil and is used as a moisturizer in many Men’s skin care products.Artemisia Vulgaris Extract (mugwort extract) – An Anti Inflammatory for the skin.Ascorbic Acid – A form of Vitamin C that is known for its Antioxidant properties.Ascorbyl Palmitate – is the Stable and non acidic form of vitamin C that is known for it’s Antioxidant properties.Avena Sativa Kernel Extract (Oat) – Is an extract derived from the Oat Plant. Avena Sativa Extract has strong Anti Irritant and Anti Inflammatory properties.Avobenzone 3% – is a synthetic ingredient that is used as a sunscreen and sunblock. It is also known by the names Parsol 1789 and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane.Avocado Oil – Is an emollient and also a non fragrant oil. It is used in skin care products for its moisturizing properties and its antioxidant qualities.Azeloglicina – A Chemical compound that is known to moisturize the skin. It is also used as a an anit ance treatment in a variety on men’s skin care products.Azulene – an extract from Chamomile used mostly as a natural coloring agent in cosmetics. It is known to have antioxidant properties.Basil – an herb you usually see in Italian recipes. But it’s oil extract has been used for years in many cultures as a skin treatment. Basil enhance the tone of your skin as well as removing dullness from your hair and skin.Bay Leaf Oil – A very potent Antioxidant rich oil derived from the Bay leaf.Beeswax – A natural wax made by bees in the construction of there honeycombs. Beeswax is mainly used as a thickening agent. Due to this property it is used in many mens hair products such as gels and pomades.Behentrimonium Chloride – is a skin conditioning agent and is often used for its emulsifying properties.Behenyl Alcohol – is used in cosmetics and skin products as a thickening agent. It is not related to the forms of alcohol that can be irritating to the skin.Bentonite – is a cometic grade clay that is used as an absorbent in skin care products. It is usually used in products designed for men with oily skin as it can help absorb excess oil on the male face.Benzocaine – is a anesthetic that is used on the outside of the skin. Benzoncaine is used topically to help relieve the feeling of irritation or burning that some men experience while shaving.Benzophenone-4 – a sun blocking compound found in many sunscreen products. It is mainly used in broad spectrum protection products as it mainly protect the skin from UVB rays. It does block some UVA rays but not as much as other compounds.Bergamot Oil – is a citrus based oil that has a pleasant fragrance and can be used in skin products to soothe the skin.Beta-Carotene – is a compound that helps form Retinol which is a fancy name for vitamin A. It has strong antioxidant properties and can help reduce the visual signs on sun damage and aging.BETA-GLUCAN – is a sugar / starch based compound that is usually derived from yeast. It has mil antioxidant properties, but is mainly used for its anti-inflammatory properties.Bilberry Extract – an antioxidant rich compound.Biosaccharide Gum-1 – is made from fermenting plants. It is a skin soothing and moisturizing agent. It works by pulling moisture from the air into the skin. It is also a mild anti irritant.Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2 – is a higher form of lanolin. It has high moisturizing properties. Due to it’s semi solid state it is usually used in lip balms and other lip products.Bisabolol – is used on the skin as an anti-irritant. It is usually extracted from chamomile or created synthetically.Bitter Orange Oil – a fragrant oil derived from the citrus family, mainly oranges. It is used as a natural fragrance for skin products.Boerhavia Root Extract – is an Indian plant extract that has strong anti inflammatory properties. It is used in many men’s skin care products that are designed for men with sensitive skin, but it is mainly used in after shaves and post shave products.BUTYLENE GLYCOL – used in cosmetics to keep products from freezing or melting from temperatures deviating from room temperature. It also helps active ingredients penetrate the skin and is used as a delivery agent.Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter) – is extracted from the Karite Tree. It is a plant lipid that is rich in antioxidants. It is used as an emollient in many men’s skin care and shaving products. It is a staple in the skin care industry for its great skin moisturizing properties.BUTYLPARABEN – is a chemical compound that is used as a preservative in skin care and shaving products. It is also used as an antifungal agent.C12 15 Alkyl Lactate – is used as a thickening agent in skin products.C12-15, C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate – is used as a thickening agent in skin products.Calcium d-Pantothenate (Pro-Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid) – is used as an anti acne compound in many acne or pimple products. It is also known to have mild hydrating properties and wound healing abilities.Calendula Extract – is used as an anti bacterial and anti inflammatory agent in many products. It is derived from the Pot Marigold plant.Calophyllum Inophylum Seed Oil (Tamanu Oil) – is an exotic ingredient that is native Polynesia. It is an all around skin healer. It has been used to treat Acne, Eczema and Psoriasis. It is also know to have anti-inflammatory effects.Camelia Oleifera Seed Extract (Green Tea) – Is known for it’s Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Carcinogen properties the world round. It is also thought to help prevent collegen breakdown and help reduce UV damage to the skin.Canadian Willowherb (Epilobium Angustifolium Extract) – is used as an antimicrobial agent in many skin and shaving products. It is also known as an anti irritant. Commonly derived form the Fireweed or Willow Herb.Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil (Hemp) – is used as an emollient in cosmetics and other men’s products. It is also considered a fatty acid. It is derived from the plant genus Cannabis which is also the genus that marijuana is part of, however while similar in shape and color, Hemp contains almost zero THC which is the active ingredient that users seek from the drug Marijuana.Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride – is an extract that is commonly derived from the Coconut. It is usually used as an emollient or thickening agent.Caprylyl Glycol – is a skin conditioning agent that can be obtained from plants or created synthetically in a lab. It is used as a preservative in many shaving, hair or facial products.Carbomer – A group of chemical agents used to thicken a product. This thickening agent is usally used in gel based products such as shaving gels and hair gels.Carica Papaya (Papaya) Fruit Extract – is commonly used in skin care products as an exfoliating agent. It is derived from the papaya plant and fruit.Carrageenan Extract – is a cosmetic grade gum that is derived from seaweed. It is usually used as a thickening agent, but is also known for it’s moisturizing benefits to the skin.Castor Oil – is a vegetable oil that comes from the Castor bean. Castor Oil leaves a film on the skin which attracts moisture to the skin. Castor oil is used in many men’s shaving products such as Pre-Shave Oils and Pre Shave Sticks and is also used in some shaving creams.Centella Asiatica Extract (May be listed as Hydrocotyl, Gotu Kola or Asiatic Acid) – It is known for having Anti Bacterial and Anti-Psoriatic properties and is also a great ingredient to heal wounds and superficial cuts on the skin.Ceratonia Siliqua Gum – Is derived from the Locust bean. It is used as an emollient and as a viscosity controlling agent.Ceteareth-12, 20 & 25 – Is a family of fatty alcohols that are used in skin care products to thicken the product as well as keep all of the ingredients mixed together.Cetyl Alcohol – Is a fatty alcohol that is usually derived from the coconut tree, but can also be created synthetically. It is used in skin products as an emulsifier, and as a thickener that also delivers other ingredients into the skin.Chlorphenesin – An alcohol used to preserve the ingredients in a cosmetic product.Cholesterol – Helps maintain the skin natural function and well as attract moisture to the skin.Cinnamon Extract – Used for its antimicrobial properties as well as it antioxidant benefits.Citric Acid – Is derived from the citrus family of fruits. It is used mostly to adjust the PH of skin products.Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime) Oil – Used in many products to help with preventing and treating acne on the face and body. Lime Oil also has great antiseptic properties.Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Oil – Used in many products to help with preventing and treating acne on the face and body. Orange Oil also has great antiseptic properties.Cocamide DEA, MEA & TEA – Are a group of chemicals that are used as a foaming agent in everything from shampoos, facial moisturizers, body washes and soap bars.Cocamidopropyl Betaine – A gentle Surfactant or Surface Active Agent is a cleaning agent that helps emulsify fats and oils on the skin in order to rinse them off and remove them from the face or body. It also suspends soils and dirt that it can be easily removed from the skin with water.Colloidal Minerals – Ground up natural minerals that are ground extremely finely and added and suspended in a product solution.Cornstarch – used as an absorbent in many products designed for men with oily skin. Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Extract – Derived from the Cucumber, which belongs to the gourd family. This extract is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. It has been used is spa’s as a treatment for puffy eyes for years.Cyclomethicone – A silicone based compound that has a slightly drier finish on the skin than Dimethicone. Commonly used in men’s shaving products as a lubricant to help glide the blade across your face.DEA Cetyl Phosphate – Commonly used a lathering agent in skin, body and hair products. It is usually paired up with a foaming or detergent agent to get a cleaning and foaming property.Dead Sea Mud – cultures living around the dead sea have used the mineral rich mud from the dead sea as a skin treatment for centuries. It is a well known treatment for Psoriasis as well as dry skin, acne and wrinkles.Decyl Glucoside – A gentle detergent that is commonly used in mens face washes that are geared toward men with sensitive or dry skin.DIAZOLIDINYL UREA – A preservative agent used in many cosmetics and skin products. Prevents the growth of bacteria, mold an fungus in the product.DICAPRYLYL CARBONATE – An Emollient that can be derived from synthetic or animal sources. It spreads easily the leave the skin feeling soft without leaving a greasy feeling on the skin.DISODIUM EDTA – Acts as a stabilizer in skin products and prevents certain ingredients from binding with smaller trace ingredients. Helps prevent the a change in color, texture and consistency over time.DMDM Hydantoin – Preservative agent in many skin care products.EDTA – An Emollient that can be derived from synthetic or animal sources. It spreads easily the leave the skin feeling soft without leaving a greasy feeling on the skin.Epilobium Angustifolium Extract – is an plant extract derived from the Willow Herb or Fireweed. It is used as an anti microbial agent.Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Oil – used as an anti microbial agent as well as an antifungal and anti viral agent.Eucalyptus Oil – used as an anti microbial agent as well as an anti fungal and anti viral agent.Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax¡V A plant extract that is derived from the Candelilla plane. This wax is used as a base in lip balms. It give the balm or stick its form. It is also used as an emollient.Gardenia Tahitensis Flower – Mainly used as a fragrance in many cosmetic and skin products. It is also a known antioxidant.Geranium Oil – Is a fragrant natural oil that has anti microbial properties.Ginger Oils – Used in men’s skin care products as an anti inflammatory. Used in many after shave or post shave products.Glycereth-7 – Used as an emollient or thickening agent in many skin based cosmetics.GLYCERIN – Click here to read more about Glycerin.Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil – This ingredient is extracted from soybeans. It is an emollient and a natural moisturizing agent.Glycol Stearate – Used as an emollient or thickening agent in many skin based cosmetics.Glycolic Acid – A synthetically derived acid that help break down oil on the skin, exfoliates the skin and can reduce fine lines on the face.Gotu Kola Centella Asiatica Extract – Also known as Asiatic Acid, Gotu Kola or Hydrocotyl. Known for it’s anto-sporiatic and skin healing properties.Grape Seed Oil – Is used for its antioxidant properties and is also an emollient oil.Green Tea Extract – Known for its antioxidant, anti carcinogen effects. Studies have shown the compounds in green tea to help prevent skin cancer in humans. It is also known to reduce collagen breakdown in the skin, which leads to wrinkles and general aging of the skin.Hamamelis Virginia (Witch Hazel) Extract – A potent antioxidant and anti inflammatory. Used in many astringents and electric pre shave solutions for skin cleaning ability and its ability to tighten the skin and raise beard stubble.Hippophae Rhamnoides Oil (Buckthorn Oil) – Known for its anti aging properties and skin healing abilities. A great ingredient to combat wrinkles and dryness of the skin.Honey – While normally consumed as a food, Honey has many healing properties for the skin. It is rich in vitamins and amino acids. Some studies have shown it to reduce the visible signs of aging.Hops – Used for its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Also makes great beerƒºHyaluronic Acid – Is a natural compound found in skin. It is used as a water binding agent, drawing moisture to the skin.Hydrolized Wheat Gluten – A compound derived by hydrolyzing wheat with water. Used in conditioners as a softening and conditioning agent. Also gives hair it’s shine after being applied and rinsed off.Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters – A compound derived from the Jojoba Plant. It is a fatty acid that is used to condition the skin.Hydroxyethylcellulose – A thickening agent derived from plants. Typically used as an emulsifier or thickening agent. Can sometimes be used in men’s hair styling products as a film forming agent.odopropynyl Butylcarbamate – An Anti-Fungal agent that is synthetically derived.Isododecane – Used as a solvent in many men’s skin care products. It enhances the spreadability of the product and has a weightless feel on the skin. It also helps prevent the loss of moisture from the skin.Isohexadecane – Used as a cleansing agent in mens skin care products. It is also used as an emulsifier and a thickening agent.Isopropyl Myristate & Palmitate – Both of these men’s skin care ingredients are used to thicken skin care products as well as emulsify them.Sostearic Acid – Is a fatty acid that is usually used as a thickener and a binding agent.

Business Loans In Canada: Financing Solutions Via Alternative Finance & Traditional Funding

Business loans and finance for a business just may have gotten good again? The pursuit of credit and funding of cash flow solutions for your business often seems like an eternal challenge, even in the best of times, let alone any industry or economic crisis. Let’s dig in.

Since the 2008 financial crisis there’s been a lot of change in finance options from lenders for corporate loans. Canadian business owners and financial managers have excess from everything from peer-to-peer company loans, varied alternative finance solutions, as well of course as the traditional financing offered by Canadian chartered banks.

Those online business loans referenced above are popular and arose out of the merchant cash advance programs in the United States. Loans are based on a percentage of your annual sales, typically in the 15-20% range. The loans are certainly expensive but are viewed as easy to obtain by many small businesses, including retailers who sell on a cash or credit card basis.

Depending on your firm’s circumstances and your ability to truly understand the different choices available to firms searching for SME COMMERCIAL FINANCE options. Those small to medium sized companies ( the definition of ‘ small business ‘ certainly varies as to what is small – often defined as businesses with less than 500 employees! )

How then do we create our road map for external financing techniques and solutions? A simpler way to look at it is to categorize these different financing options under:

Debt / Loans

Asset Based Financing

Alternative Hybrid type solutions

Many top experts maintain that the alternative financing solutions currently available to your firm, in fact are on par with Canadian chartered bank financing when it comes to a full spectrum of funding. The alternative lender is typically a private commercial finance company with a niche in one of the various asset finance areas

If there is one significant trend that’s ‘ sticking ‘it’s Asset Based Finance. The ability of firms to obtain funding via assets such as accounts receivable, inventory and fixed assets with no major emphasis on balance sheet structure and profits and cash flow ( those three elements drive bank financing approval in no small measure ) is the key to success in ABL ( Asset Based Lending ).

Factoring, aka ‘ Receivable Finance ‘ is the other huge driver in trade finance in Canada. In some cases, it’s the only way for firms to be able to sell and finance clients in other geographies/countries.

The rise of ‘ online finance ‘ also can’t be diminished. Whether it’s accessing ‘ crowdfunding’ or sourcing working capital term loans, the technological pace continues at what seems a feverish pace. One only has to read a business daily such as the Globe & Mail or Financial Post to understand the challenge of small business accessing business capital.

Business owners/financial mgrs often find their company at a ‘ turning point ‘ in their history – that time when financing is needed or opportunities and risks can’t be taken. While putting or getting new equity in the business is often impossible, the reality is that the majority of businesses with SME commercial finance needs aren’t, shall we say, ‘ suited’ to this type of funding and capital raising. Business loan interest rates vary with non-traditional financing but offer more flexibility and ease of access to capital.

We’re also the first to remind clients that they should not forget govt solutions in business capital. Two of the best programs are the GovernmentSmall Business Loan Canada (maximum availability = $ 1,000,000.00) as well as the SR&ED program which allows business owners to recapture R&D capital costs. Sred credits can also be financed once they are filed.

Those latter two finance alternatives are often very well suited to business start up loans. We should not forget that asset finance, often called ‘ ABL ‘ by those Bay Street guys, can even be used as a loan to buy a business.

If you’re looking to get the right balance of liquidity and risk coupled with the flexibility to grow your business seek out and speak to a trusted, credible and experienced Canadian business financing advisor with a track record of business finance success who can assist you with your funding needs.

Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:

1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;

2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.

First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.

This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.

Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.

V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.

In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;

2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.

If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of finances, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern economical literature. We may give such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. in this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This latest is very actual, relatively to the process of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in different countries, for example, Great Britain and France.

“Finances – are cash sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, also economical relations, which are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical subjects, movement of cash sources, money circulation and usage”.
“Finances are the system of economical relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources”.

We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The financial decisions are characterized by the expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account beforehand neither by those who get decisions nor any other person” . “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learns systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relatively to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decisions take place” .

These basic conceptions and quantitative models are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.

For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.

Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economical category of credit exists parallel to the economical category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistence of finances.

N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is only its “characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners’ rights”.

N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical basis for apportioning finances and credit as an independent category and gave rise to the credit and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has business with the research of such economical relations, which lean upon cash flow and credit.
Let’s discuss the most spread definitions of credit. in the modern publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For example, we meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economical relations between the creditor and borrower”.

This is the traditional definition of credit. In the earlier dictionary of the economy we read: “credit is the system of economical relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash and material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of returning and paying percent”.
In the manual of the political economy published under reduction of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, labour collective and workers during formation and usage of the loan funds, under the terms of paying present and returning, during transmission of sources for the temporal usage and accumulation”.

Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Credit has an objective character. It is used for providing widened further production of the state and other needs. Credit differs from finances by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition”.

We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical category, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation of credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical and money relations, the form of which is the money relation”.

Following scientists give slightly different definitions of credit:
“Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the percentage rate by the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined terms by the price of fixed percentage. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. In the process of this loan’s movement, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who gives certain cash as a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economical relations between the participants of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.

Though, at the same time we must distinguish two resembling concepts: loan and credit. Loan is characterized by:

o Here, the discussion may touch upon transmission of money and also things form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a)under the owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) under the conditions of returning same amount or same quantity and quality of the things;

o The loaning of money may bear no interest;

o Any person may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit, which is somehow a private occasion of the loan, represents:

o One side (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only money, and _ for temporal usage;

o It may not bear no interest (if the assignment doesn’t foresee something);

o In it creditor is not any person, but a credit organization (at the first place, banks).
So, a credit is the bank credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” as the synonyms.
Banking crediting is the union of relations between bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These relations touch upon:

a) Giving a certain amount of money to the borrower for definite purpose (though, we meet with the so-called free credits, aims and objects of crediting are not appointed in the assignment);

b) Its opportune returning;

c) Getting percentage rate from the borrower for using the sources under his/her disposal.
The essential foundation of the credit essence and its important element is existence of trust between the two sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit”, means “trust”).
From the position of circulation of money forms (in the abstraction, historical process of formation economical relations and social budget and banking systems expressed by them) comparing different definitions of finances and credit, the paradox conclusion appears: credit is the private occasion of finances. And truly, from the position of movement of the money forms, finances represent the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means. Very often such movements are fulfilled without returning, but sometimes, it is possible to give loans from the budget for the investment projects of other needs. Also, when a manufacture or corporations use their cash funds and we mean the finances of industrial subject, such usage may be realized as inside the manufacture or corporation (there is no subject about returning or not returning of the usage), so gratis under conditions of returning. This latest is called commercial form because of transmitting the sources to others, but even in this occasion, it is the element of financial system of the manufacture and corporation.

From the point of cash means movement, main character of credit is the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means under the conditions of returning and, as a rule, taking the value-percentage. If gating the credit value doesn’t take place (even in the exceptional occasions), according to the movement form, credit becomes a private occasion of finances, as from the net financial funds (consequently from the state budget) the loans which bear no interests may be used. If gating credit value takes place, by the appearance form, credit is discussed to be financial modification.

From the historical point of view, finances (especially in the sort of the state budget) and credit (beginning with usury, later commercial and banking) were developing differently for considering credit to be the part of finances. Though, from the genetic-historical point of view, previous loaners, before giving loan, needed gathering the permanent capital not returning, that is the net financial foundation. The banks analogously needed concentration of the important own capital for influxing the consumers’ means and for getting higher percentage rate under the conditions of returning. Herewith, exactly on the financial basis, in the sort of financial fund (which later partially becomes loan fund) part of the bank capital appears to be the reservation (insurance) part of the fund, which by nature is financial and not loan. So notwithstanding the essential distinctions between finances and credit form the genetic-historical point of view, credit appears to be formed from finances and represent their modification.

From the essential position of expressing economical relations of finances and credit, we meet with cardinal distinctions between these two categories. Which mostly expressed by the distinction of the movement forms notwithstanding they are returnable or not. Finances express relations in the aspects of distribution and redistribution of social product and part of the national wealth. Credit expresses distribution of the appropriate value only in the section of percentage given for loan, while according to the loan itself, a only a temporal distribution of money sources takes place.
Herewith, there is a lot of common between the finances and credit as from the essential point of view, so according to the form of movement. At the same time, there is a significant distinction between finances and credit as in the essence, so in the form too. According to this, there must be a kind of generally economical category, which will consider finances and credit as a total unity, and in the bounds of this category itself, the separation of the specific essence of the finances and credit would take place.

Funding of the cash means is common to the researched economical categories. It takes place in any separate system of finances and credit, which have been touched upon during the analyses of defining finances and credit. Word combination “funding of the cash sources (fund formation)” reflects and defines exactly essence and form of economical category of more general character, those of finances and credit categories. Though in the in economical texts and practice, it is very uncomfortable to use a termini, which consists of three words. Also, “unloading” with an information hardens greatly its influxing into the circulation even in the conditions of its strict substantiation and thoroughness.
In the discussing context we consider:

1) wide and narrow understanding of economical category of the finances;

2) discussing finances in narrow understanding under general traditional meaning;

3) discussing finances, as funding of the cash means, in wide understanding, which concerns finances – in narrow meaning and credit – in complete meaning.
Termini “funding” and its equivalent “fund formation” are used by us as the purposeful structuring of cash means, which is based on two poles – accumulation of money sources (gathering) and its usage for definite purpose in the way of financing and crediting.
We have established a new termini – “finance-investment sphere” (FIS). Analyses about interrelation of finances and credit made by us give us an opportunity of proving, that in the given termini, the word “financial” is used with the meaning of funding cash sources, its purposeful structuring. In this process we consider at the same time financial, credit and investments’ economical categories.

Let’s sum up middle results of discussing new concept – “finance-investment sphere” and discuss its investment consisting parts.

The concept “investments” was brought into the native economical science from the West. In the Soviet economical science they for a long time used in the place “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed the usage of the industrial factors in the sphere of real industrial activities during realization of capital projects. From one glance, this termini in its concept is identical to the “investments”, consequently it is possible to use them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “investing” have the advantage towards the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological points of view, because they are expressed with one word. This is not only economical and comfortable in the process of working with the termini “investment” itself, but also it gives an opportunity of termini formation. More concretely: “investment process”, “investment domain”, “finance-investment sphere” – all these termini are much more acceptable.
Changing native economical termini with foreign ones is purposeful, if it really matters (by keeping parallel usage of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we must not change native economical termini into foreign ones all together, when by ordinal traditional language easy to explain private and narrow concrete processes and elements get their own termini. The “movement” of these termini is approved in the narrow professional bounds, but their “spitting out” into the economical science may turn economical language into the tangled slang.

Let’s discuss termini – “investment” and “capital placement’s” usage in the economical literature.
Investments are placement of funds into the main and circulation capital for the purpose of getting profit. “Investments in material assets – are the placements of funds into the mobile and real estate (land, buildings, furniture and so on). Investments in financial assets are the placements of funds into the securities bank accounts and other financial instruments”.

We don’t meet with the termini “investments” in the earlier economical dictionary, but we meet the combined termini “investment policy” – the union of the industrial decisions, which guarantee main directions of the capital investments, the activities of their concentration in the determinant suburbs, on which the reaching of planned rates of development of the society production is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting more and more production and profit of the national income for every lost Ruble”. For today, in the most actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded only by financial means, when not only financial, but also the investment of natural, material-technical and informational resources takes place. Labour resources take an actual place in the investment process. They themselves fulfill this or that investment process.

A positive side of the discussed definitions is that they connect investment policy and capital placements (investments):

- economical development according to the key directions to the concentration;

- providing high rates of economical growth;

- raising an economical effectiveness, which is expressed:

a) by growing the throw off of the production and national income for every lost Ruble;

b) by fulfilling the branch structure of the investments;

c) by improving their technological structure;

d) by optimization of their further production structure.

Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments in the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering production and industrial means and increasing material reserve”. In this definition current expenses (production expenses) are mixed with the investment (capital) expense. Also, not the investment expenses but (though the investments are followed by the appropriate expenses) exactly advancing. It differs from the expenses by that the means (means) are put by returning the advanced values, also, under the conditions of growth, to which the concept-advanced capital is corresponding. the advancing may be realized in the money, natural-material and informational forms.

Except the termini “investments”, there are two more termini related with the investment. They are shown below.

“Human capital investment” – any activity provided for rising the workers labour productivity (in the way of growing their qualification and developing their abilities); at the expenses of improving the workers’ education, health and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It is very useful to use the mentioned termini, though it needs one correction: the human capital investments do not concern only workers, but also the servants, representatives of every kind of labour.
“Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”

In the official manuals of political economy of the reformation time the capital investments are discussed as “expenses for creating new main funds and widening, reconstruction and renewing the active ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) during separation of the forms (types) of further production of the main funds are bounded only by main funds (without increases of the circulation funds and insurance reserves):

a) creating new ones;

b) widening;

c) reconstruction;

d) renewing.

Also, the concept of the industrial gathering appears, at the expenses of widening of basic, circulation funds and also insurance reserves takes place”.

You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the course of economy”: the investments are called “placements of fund into the basic capital (basic means of production), reserves, also other economical objects and processes, which request long-termed influxing of material and cash means. “According to the division of capital into physical and money forms, the investments too must be divided into material and cash investments”.

They apportion investment commodity, to which belong industrial and nonindustrial building objects, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, increasing reserves and others.

“They call the total investments of production an investment product, which is directed towards keeping and increasing the basic capital (basic means) and reserve. Total investments consist of two parts. One of them is called the depreciation; it represents important investment resources for compensation of renewal till the level of before industrial usage, wearing out and repairing of the basic means. Second consisting part of the total investments is represented by net investments – capital investments for the purpose of increasing basic means”. Depreciation is not a compensation resource of wearing the basic funds out, but it is the purposeful financial source of such resources.
Human capital investment is “a specific kind of investments, mostly in education and health protection”.

“Real investments are the investments in the economical branches and also, they are kinds of economical activities, which provide influxing the increases of real capital, that is increasing material values of the industrial means”. We can agree with such definition with one specification that material and nonmaterial values too belong to the real capital (wealth), consequently science-researching experimental-construction results, various information, education of he workers and others. Such service as organization of the excitable games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one private person to another (except charity).

“Financial investments represent placement of funds into the shares, obligations, promissory notes, other securities and instruments. Such investments, of course, do not give increases of the real material capital, but they help getting profit, consequently at the expenses of changing the course of the securities in the time of speculation, or distinguishing the course in different places of sell and purchasing”. We share wholly such definition, hence it follows that financial investments (if it is not followed by real investments as a result) do not increase real material wealth and real nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression below is very important: “we must distinguish financial investments, which represent placement of the funds in the ways of selling and purchasing the securities for the purpose of getting profit and financial investments, which become cash and real, moved to real physical capital.”

In the “economical course” quoted before long and short-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the existence of the bounds between them, the authors ascribe short-termed investments to “one month or more” investments. If we get such conditioned criteria, that we can call the investments which overcome the terms of some months, long-termed ones, which is very doubtful and we don’t agree with it. A long-termed character of the fund placement is a significant feature of the investments (short-term doesn’t combine with the concept of investments). Principally, it would be better to point out quick compensative, middle termed compensative and long-termed compensative investments:

- less then 6 months – quick compensative;

- from 6 months up to the year and a half – middle termed compensative;

- more then the year and a half – long termed compensative.

We stopped at the definition of the investments in the capital work “economical course” for the special purpose, as, in it the author tried to discuss the concept of investments systemically and quite completely, herewith the book is published just now.

We’ll return to the discussion the definition economical category of “investments” in different publications in the following chapter. The definitions given here are quite enough for having a notion of the level of lighting up the given category in the economical literature.
What conclusions may be made according the definition of the mentioned economical category in the published works, except the made notions and specifications?

There is quite deeply, concretely and thoroughly defined the concept of “investments”, different definitions in the economical literature; but mostly in every works about the investments discussed by us until now, there is not opened the essence of investments as an economical category. In every monograph , even if it has a title investment, as an economical category , there is given only the definition, concept of investments. But, as the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “a concept is a discussion, which proves something about the distinguishing feature of the researched object. A concept out of much essential characteristic features represents only one, and essential in it is only – definition”.

But the categories are much wider; it is “a key, the most fundamental concept of every science”. Economical categories theoretically represent real, objectively existed productive relations. A category is the defining of occasions of existed characters, connections, relations of the objective world. Generally, any educational process is fulfilled by the categories, which give opportunities for dividing the processes and occasions semantically, for expressing the definitions of a subject and realize their specific peculiarities and economical relations of a material world.
Our goal is exactly to substantiate investments – as an economical category and also, as a financial category in the narrow understanding.

Here we apply for another manual thesis made by the academician Vasil Chantladze: “every financial relation is an economical one and every financial category is and economical one, but not every economical relation and economical category is financial relation and financial category”.
In the process of defining the investments, it is important to take in mind the sides of resources, expenses and incomes, because investment, from one side, is the result of the manufacture’s activity, and, from another one, – a part of income, which, in this case, is not used for usage.
Another occasion: it is advisable to discuss investments in two aspects: as a category of reserve and flow, which will reflect exactly the connection between “placement of funds” and “investments”.